drawings utilized in Construction

What are the kinds of drawings utilized in Construction?

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Construction is a complex process and involves different agencies at different points of time to execute the project successfully. Right from the planning stage to design and construction, different kinds of drawings are created.

These drawings are known as Construction Drawings (commonly for Architectural set of drawings) and Shop Drawings (for Structural and MEP set of drawings). These drawings are orthographic projections that provide layout plans and details for construction of each and every part of the building. They give technical stipulations of the project in a readable format. They are also vital for the approval and commencement of the project. Today, we will be discussing about the Architectural drawings that are used in the construction stage.

1. Architectural Construction Drawings:

Architecture drawings are a technical representation of the building project falling under the classification of architecture. These are made with lines, projections and scales. These drawings can be used to convey the merits of the design to the client. 

An Architectural drawing has various details of the project like:

  • Site Plan: This is the primary drawing which is used to mark out the plan. The site plan has a detail description of construction site that includes primary building and its adjoining constructions. It describes the layouts of various aspects such as the topography, considering importance of surrounding features, indicates the roads layouts, and walkways.  It also provides the plans for drainage, gardening area, fencing and walls etc. related to the project in question.
  • Floor Plans: Floor Plans deals with the layout of rooms within the building i.e. how various sections in a floor like location of rooms, stairs, kitchen etc. are placed. They provide the instructions for the architects and engineers and can also be used later on for the interior design.
  • Elevation Drawing: Elevations are a two-dimensional drawing of the exterior of the building. Since buildings are rarely simple rectangular in shape, elevation drawings are needed to convey the and shape of the external building, height of the building etc. An elevation drawing is made considering all four directions: east, west, north and south.
  • Section Drawings: A section drawing shows the view of the building as if it’s been cut into half or along any imaginary plane. It removes some selected part of the building to showcase the internal elements of the building.
  • Roof Plan: They are a set of drawings which give a bird’s eye of the roof. They are taken from above and give details regarding the size, shape, dimensions of the roof. It also gives placement of various materials like the ventilation and drainage.
  • Foundation plan: Foundation plan is somewhat similar to floor plan the only difference is it deals with the basic foundation of a building and also highlights areas like basement of a building.
  • Detail Plans: They are drawings which provide information about a particular part or elements of the project. They are generally enlarged to showcase any specific details for example the design of a door, window or the materials that are used to construct it.

2. Structural Drawings:

The structural drawings are engineer’s drawings and they focus on the structural aspect of the building. They are the backbone of the building and they contain every minute aspects and description like materials, standards, techniques, and so on required to carry out the work. A key part of any structural building is the general note which is more about the codes and the laws of the building.

  • Column Layout: It determines the design, pattern and location of each column in the structure. This plan is made floor wise and also tells what should be the distance between two columns. It guides the contractors make sense of the whole building.
  • Plinth Beam Layout: Plinth Beam are beam structures that are crucial for the support system of the building. These too are made floor wise and give information regarding dimensions, position and section of plinth beam
  • Lintel Beam Layout: Lintel Beams provide support to part of the building made above windows and doors. In these drawings number, positions and dimensions of lintel beans in each floor is mentioned.
  • Roof Beam and Shuttering Layout: A roof beam is made on top of the building to support the roof. It is generally made from wood but can also be made from steel or concrete. These drawings show the reinforcement of the roof beam and its sections and shuttering details.
  • Roof Slab Layout: The main purpose of this drawing is to give a detailed account of floors, roof faces and other such surfaces that requires accurate edge information. It also gives information about its sections and openings for example to put starlight or stairs.

3. MEP Drawings:

MEP Shop Drawings Services provide a set of drawings that are created to show in detail the various components of the mechanical, electrical and plumbing disciplines. These shop drawings include guidelines, manufacturing standards and dimensions of all these components.

  • Mechanical Drawings: The mechanical drawings showcase the designs of the mechanical system, ductwork layouts and its specifications, thermoset locations, air delivery rates, diffuser locations etc. The mechanical plan to simply put shows the location of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system in the building. This step is also considered very important when it comes to construction drawings.
  • Electrical drawings: Electrical drawings give information about electrical fixtures, location of switches, fans etc. It also details the load calculations, wiring paths and other interventions such as AC or heater. It is extremely crucial for it demonstrates the physical layout of the wires and mechanisms they connect inside the building as well as the outside power grid.
  • Plumbing and Sanitary Drawings: These drawings show the system for pumping of water both going in and out. Pipes, pumps, drains its nature and size are all shown in the drawings. It also shows the process to connect each fixture.

Conclusion:

Thus, Shop Drawings is rather a complex set of drawings each one of which is equally important in the construction process. Ignoring any of the above-mentioned steps can be proved disastrous for the project. Also, these drawings are no longer drawn with ink on paper but have shifted to a digital ecosystem. Engineers and architects use AutoCAD to provide CAD Services. BIM software such as Revit, and ArchiCad are also used to generate construction and shop drawings.  This has increased the speed and efficiency of the drawings.


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